Italian Immigration: Why So Many
Italians Live Outside Italy
The Italian immigration phenomenon of the 19th and 20th centuries
is often referred to as The Italian Diaspora. This
large-scale migration of Italians away from Italy occurred in several distinct waves:
A typical transportation ship
of the early 20th century
- The first wave occurred between the unification
of Italy in 1861 and 1900. At the time of unification, Italy's population was approximately 24 million. Over 7
million people emigrated over the next forty years, 66% from the northern regions and 33% from the south. More than
half went to other European countries, while the rest went overseas to North and South America, Australia and New
- The second period of mass migration occurred
between 1900 and 1914, the beginning of World War I. During this time, over 9 million Italians, mostly from the
rural south, sailed for North or South America. In 1913 alone, 872,598 people left Italy.
From 1861 to 1914, a total of 40 million Europeans emigrated overseas, about
two-thirds settling in the USA. 16 million of them were Italian.
Although the war put a stop to Italian emigration, the flow began almost
immediately it was over. In 1920, 614,000 emigrants left Italy, half sailing for the USA. During the first 5
years of Fascism, 1.5 million people left Italy, approximately 300,000 per year. 300,000 emigrants left Italy
as late as 1930. Many were older family members joining their established sons and daughters in the new
In a 1927 study by the Italian government, it was estimated that there were
approximately 9,200,000 Italian immigrants living overseas — almost 20% of the Italian population.
- The third wave of Italian emigration followed
World War II, along with Europeans from a variety of countries. After six years of war, many people dreamed of
a fresh start in a new homeland.
The motives behind this mass exodus were
complex, and often associated with the region where the immigrants originated.
Key Factors Behind The Italian Immigration
- Poverty was the primary reason Italians left
The lack of land, especially as it became subdivided among heirs over several
generations, was a major problem for rural populations. People struggling to eke out a living in small
communities learned of opportunities in other countries and seized their chance. Conditions were harsher in the
south, so the majority of the immigrants in the 20th century came from these regions.
- Internal political/economic problems were
also a major factor.
Following World War I and the conditions that resulted in Fascism, Italians left
the country in droves. Similarly, the devastation of Italy during World War II led to the third major wave of
- Organised crime and its role in the economic
difficulties of southern Italy played a part.
In his bestselling novel, The
Sicilian, Mario Puzo tells the story of Salvatore (Turi) Giuliano, the
'Robin Hood of Sicily' who fought a guerrilla war for both Sicilian separatism and freedom from Mafia control,
and became a folk hero in the process. According to Puzo, Giuliano's murder in 1950 had a devastating effect on
the Sicilian people: in the two years following his death, 500,000 Sicilians – mostly young men – emigrated,
leaving behind a land of women, children and old people.
Italian Immigration Destinations
A study of Italian immigration statistics
reveals that Italians have settled in substantial numbers in the following countries:
Some Final Statistics On
From 1861 to 1985...
29,036,000 Italians migrated to other countries in Europe
including the UK, North
America, South America, North Africa, East
Africa, Australia and New
10,275,00 returned to Italy.
18,761,000 remained abroad.
The estimated number of people of Italian origin living abroad in
2008 is 60-70 million.
The Italian government refers to these people as “Italiani Nel
Mondo” – Italians in the World.
Do You Have An Immigration Story To Tell?
Do you know the story of your family's
journey from Italy to another country? To submit your family's story to our site, please visit